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2023. How crises shape circles of solidarity: Evidence from the COVID pandemic in Italy, with Jeremy Ferwerda, Gabriele Magni, and Liesbet Hooghe. Comparative Political Studies  (online first, May 2023) || || Replication data (Harvard DataVerse)

2023Transformation of the political space A citizens perspective, with Ruth Dassonneville, and Liesbet Hooghe. European Journal of Political Research (online first, April 2023) || || Online Appendix and Replication data.


2022. Discovering cooperation: Endogenous change in international organizations, with Tobias Lenz, Besir Ceka, Liesbet Hooghe, and Alexandr Burilkov. Review of International Organization (online first, Dec 2022) || || Online Appendix || Replication data

2022. Differentiation in the European Union and beyond, with Liesbet Hooghe. European Union Politics (online first, Sept 2022) ||

2022.  The social roots of the transnational cleavage: Education, occupation, and sex, with Liesbet Hooghe. RSCAS Working Paper 2022/53 (July 2022) || Online Appendix

2022. Revisiting party system structuration in Latin America and Europe: Economic and socio-cultural dimensions, with Cecilia Martínez-Gallardo, Nicolás de la Cerda, Jonathan Hartlyn, Liesbet Hooghe, and Ryan Bakker. Party Politics (online first, June 2022) || DOI: 10.1177/1354068822109060

2022. The Social Bases of Political Parties: A New Measure and Survey, with David Attewell, Jan Rovny, Liesbet Hooghe, and Marco Steenbergen. British Journal of Political Science, doi:10.1017/S0007123421000740 || Replication data

2022. Contesting Covid: The ideological bases of partisan responses to the Covid‐19 pandemic, with Jan Rovny, Ryan Bakker, Liesbet Hooghe, Seth Jolly, Jonathan Polk, Marco Steenbergen, Milada Anna Vachudova, “European Journal of Political Research (online publication, Jan 2022) doi: 10.1111/1475-6765.12510 || replication data

2022. Chapel Hill Expert Survey trend file, 1999-2019, with Seth Jolly, Ryan Bakker, Liesbet Hooghe, Jonathan Polk, Jan Rovny, Marco Steenbergen, and Milada Anna Vachudova, Electoral Studies, 75 (online publication, November 2021) ). DOI: || supplementary appendix ||


2021.Multilevel governance and the coordination dilemma, with Liesbet Hooghe. In  A Research Agenda for Multilevel Governance, edited by Arthur Benz, Jorg Broschek, and Markus Lederer. Edgar Elgar, 19-36.

2021. The Territorial Architecture of Government, with Michaël Tatham and Liesbet Hooghe. Governance, 34(3) (online first, April 2021) DOI: 10.1111/gove.12603.

2021. Language Difference and Regional Authority, with Sarah Shair-Rosenfield, Sara Niedzwiecki, Sandra Chapman Osterkatz, Liesbet Hooghe, Arjan H. Schakel. Regional and Federal Studies,31(1): 73-97 (online first, Oct 14, 2020). Online appendix || Replication data (stata 15)

2021. The RAI Travels to Latin America: Measuring Regional Authority under Regime Change, with Sara Niedzwiecki, Sandra Chapman, and Liesbet Hooghe. Regional and Federal Studies, 31(2): 236-260 (online first, July 2018).

2021. Cleavage Theory, with David Attewell, Liesbet Hooghe, and Jan Rovny. In Palgrave Handbook on EU Crises, edited by Marianne Riddervold, Jarle Trondal, and Akasemi Newsome. London: Palgrave MacMillan, 173-94.


2020. TEACHING: Keys to European Politics –thirteen videos on the European Union, multilevel governance, the transnational cleavage (with Liesbet Hooghe).

2020. Who opposes the EU? Continuity and change in party Euroscepticism between 2014 and 2019, with Ryan Bakker, Liesbet Hooghe, Jonathan Polk, Jan Rovny, Marco Steenbergen, Milada Vachudova. LSE Blog Jun1.

2020. A Postfunctionalist Theory of Multilevel Governance, with Liesbet Hooghe. Breakthrough Symposium on Multilevel Governance. British Journal of Politics and International Relations, Vol 22 (4): 820-26. 

2020. Multilevel Governance, with Liesbet Hooghe and Arjan H. Schakel. Chapter 11 in Comparative Politics, edited by Daniele Caramani. Oxford University Press.

2020. The Changing Political Landscape in Europe, with Liesbet Hooghe, David Attewell, Jan Rovny. In: The EU Through Multiple Crises, edited by Maurizio Cotta and Pierangelo Isernia. London: Routledge, pp.20-44. .


2019. A Theory of International Organizationco-authored with Liesbet Hooghe and Tobias Lenz. Oxford: OUP. Table of Contents.

2019. Is Liberal Intergovernmentalism Regressive? A Comment on Moravcsik (2018), with Liesbet Hooghe, Journal of European Public Policy, online first, Feb 2019 + Supplementary Appendix on Sources for Choice for Europe.

2019. Grand theories of European integration in the Twenty First Century, with Liesbet Hooghe. Journal of European Public Policy, 26(8): 1113-33.


2018Contested World Order: The Delegitimation of International Governance, with Liesbet Hooghe and Tobias Lenz. Review of International Organizations, online first, Nov 2018,

2018. Re-engaging Grand Theory: European Integration in the 21st Century, with Liesbet Hooghe. Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies (RSCAS) Working Paper Series, No. 2018/43.

2018The RAI travels to Latin America Measuring Regional Authority Under Regime Change, with Sara Niedzwiecki, Sandra Chapman, and Liesbet Hooghe. Regional and Federal Studies, online first, August, [].

2018Symposium: Measuring and Theorizing Regional Governance, Territory, Politics, Governance (March 2018), with Kent Eaton, JP Faguet, Imke Harbers, and response by Arjan H. Schakel, Liesbet Hooghe, Gary Marks, Sara Niedzwiecki, Sarah Shair-Rosenfield, and Sandra Chapman Osterkatz, online first March 2018, [].

2018. Cleavage Theory Meets Europe’s Crises: Lipset, Rokkan, and A Transnational Cleavage, with Liesbet Hooghe. Journal of European Public Policy, 25(1): 109-135. 

2018. Introduction to a Special Issue ‘Theory Meets Crisis’” with Liesbet Hooghe and Brigid Laffan, Journal of European Public Policy. 25(1): 109-135.


2017. Measuring International Authority: A Postfunctionalist Theory of Governance, Vol. III,co-authored with Liesbet Hooghe, Tobias Lenz, Besir Ceka, Svet Derderyanand Jeanine BezuijenOxford: Oxford University Press. Table of ContentsChapter 1. For access to the MIA data, click here.

2017. Explaining the salience of anti-elitism and reducing political corruption for political parties in Europe with the 2014 Chapel Hill Expert Survey data, with Jon Polk, Jan Rovny, Ryan Bakker, Erica Edwards, Liesbet Hooghe, Seth Jolly, Jelle Koedam, Filip Kostelka, Marco Steenbergen, Milada Vachudova, Research & Politics, Jan-March: 1-9. Data: CHES site


2016. Community, Scale and Regional Governance: A Postfunctionalist Theory of Governance: Volume II, co-authored ms. with Liesbet Hooghe, Oxford: Oxford University Press. Table of contents Vol II.

2016. Regional Institutional Design: Pooling and Delegation, with Tobias Lenz. Oxford Handbook of Comparative Regionalism, edited by Tanja Börzel and Thomas Risse. Oxford: Oxford University press.

2016. Measuring Regional Authority: A Postfunctionalist Theory of Governance: Volume Ico-authored ms. with Liesbet Hooghe, Arjan Schakel, Sara Niedzwiecki, Sandra Chapman Osterkatz, and Sarah Shair-Rosenfield, Oxford: Oxford University Press. Table of contents Vol I. For access to the RAI data, click here.


2015Multilevel Governance and the State, with Arjan H. Schakel and Liesbet Hooghe, for an Oxford Handbook on the Transformation of the State, edited by Stephan Leibfried, Evelyne Huber, John Stephens.

2015Delegation and Pooling in International Organizations, with Liesbet Hooghe, Review of International Organizations, 10(3): 305-28.Online appendix; Replication data


2014. “European Union and Empire: Achieving Scale by Accommodating Diversity,” in Stefanie Börner and Monika Eigmüller, eds., European Integration, Processes of Change and the National Experience (New York: Wiley).

2014. Patterns of International Organization: Task-specific vs. General-Purpose, with Tobias Lenz, Jeanine Bezuijen, Liesbet Hooghe. Politische Vierteljahresschrift, 49/2014: 107-132. Appendix.

2014. Discovering Cooperation: A Contractual Approach to Institutional Change in Regional International Organizations, with Tobias Lenz, Bes Ceka, and Brian Burgoon. EUI Working Paper RSCAS 2014/65, Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies, Global Governance Programme.

2014. A Comparative Measure of Decentralization for Southeast Asia, with Sarah Shair-Rosenfield and Liesbet Hooghe. Journal of East Asian Studies, 14(1): 85-108.


2012Europe and its Empires: From Rome to the European UnionJournal of Common Market Studies, Vol. 50 (1): 1-20.

2012. “Scale, Community and ‘Eurafrica’: A Response to Hansen and Jonsson,” Journal of Common Market Studies, 50(6): 1042–1044.

2012Beyond Federalism: Estimating and Explaining the Territorial Structure of Government, with Liesbet Hooghe, forthcoming in PubliusOnline appendix. Replication data in stata and spss.

2012. Measuring Party Positions in Europe: The Chapel Hill Expert Survey Trend File, 1999-2010, with Ryan Bakker, Catherine de Vries, Erica Edwards, Seth Jolly, Liesbet Hooghe, Jonathan Polk, Jan Rovny, Marco Steenbergen, Milada Vachudova, Party Politics, 21 (1): 143-153. Data:

2012. Politicization, with Liesbet Hooghe, Handbook on the European Union, edited by Erik Jones, Stephen Weatherill, and Anand Menon, OUP, 840-53.

2012. Editor (with Catherine de Vries) of a Special issue on The Politics of DimensionalityEuropean Union Politics 13(2), including The Struggle over Dimensionality: A Note on Theory and Empirics, with Catherine de Vries, 13 (2): 185-193.


2011. Issues and Dimensions in Public Opinion, with Jan Rovny, draft.


2010. Measurement Validity and Party positioning: Chapel Hill Expert Surveys of 2002 and 2006, with Ryan Bakker, Anna Brigevich, Catherine de Vries, Erica Edwards, Liesbet Hooghe, Jan Rovny, Marco Steenbergen, Milada Vachudova, European Journal of Political Research, 42 (4): 684-703. Replication data.

2010. “A Symposium on Goldstein’s Political Repression,” Labor History, Vol. 51, No. 2 (May 2010) 295-318. Marks response: Crude Conceptualization, Biased Evidence, Weak Explanation

2010. Regional Authority in 42 Democracies, 1950–2006, with Liesbet Hooghe and Arjan H. Schakel. London: Routledge.


2009. Radicalism or Reformism. Socialist Parties before World War I, with Heather A. D. Mbaye and Hyung-min Kim, American Sociological Review 74: 615-635.

2009. Efficiency and the Territorial Structure of Government, with Liesbet Hooghe, Annual Review of Political Science 12 (May): 225-241.

2009. “Rise of the Regions,” with Liesbet Hooghe, Cahiers of the Committee of the Regions: Inaugural Edition.

2009.  A Postfunctionalist Theory of European Integration: From Permissive Consensus to Constraining Dissensus, with Liesbet Hooghe, with Liesbet Hooghe, British Journal of Political Science 39: 1-23. Commentaries from Schmitter, Kriesi, and Boerzel & Risse.


2008. European Union? with Liesbet Hooghe. 30th Anniversary issue of West European Politics 31(1–2): 108 – 129.

2008. Die Entstehung eines politischen Gemeinwesens: Der Kampf um die europäische Integration, (translated from The Making of a Polity: The Struggle over European Integration) with a new postscript “Politisierung und nationale Identitäten–Eine Nachbetrachtung von Liesbet Hooghe und Gary Marks,” [English original] in Die Politische Ökonomie der Europäischen Integration, edited by Martin Höpner, Armin Schäfer (Frankfurt am Main: Campus Verlag), 159-202.

2008. Double Issue. Regional and Federal Studies, Vol. 18 (2-3), 111-302, Regional Authority in 42 Democracies, 1950–2006: A Measure and Five Hypotheses, with Liesbet Hooghe.


2007. Cross-Validating Data on Party Positioning on European Integration, with Marco Steenbergen, Liesbet Hooghe, and Ryan Bakker, Electoral Studies, 26 (1): 23-38. Dataset:

2007. Do expert surveys produce consistent estimates of party stances on European integration? Comparing expert surveys in the difficult case of Central and Eastern Europe, with Liesbet Hooghe, Matthew Loveless, Robert Rohrschneider, Marco Steenbergen, Milada Vachudova, Stephen Whitefield. Electoral Studies 26: 50-61.

2007. Triangulation and the Square Root LawElectoral Studies 26: 1-10.

2007. Editor of special issue, “Estimating Error in Measures of Party Positioning. Expert, Manifesto and Survey Data Compared,” Electoral Studies 26, 1:1-141.

2007. Sources of Euroskepticism: Introduction, with Liesbet Hooghe. Acta Politica 42 (2-3): 119-127.

2007. Does Occupation Shape Attitudes on Europe: Benchmarking Validity and Parsimony, with Liesbet Hooghe and JingJing Huo. Acta Politica 42 (2-3): 329-351.

2007. Double special issue on “Understanding Euroscepticism,” Acta Politica 42 (2-3), edited with Liesbet Hooghe. Table of contents.

2007. Evaluating Expert Judgments, with Marco Steenbergen. European Journal of Political Research 46(3): 347–366.

2007.  “Multi-level Governance in Southern Europe: European Integration and Regional Mobilization,” with Ivan Llamazares, in P. Nikiforos Diamandouros, Richard Gunther, and Gianfranco Pasquino, eds., The Changing Functions of the State in the New Southern Europe (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press).


2006. The Neofunctionalists Were (Almost) Right: Politicization and European Integration, with Liesbet Hooghe, in Colin Crouch and Wolfgang Streeck, eds. The Diversity of Democracy: Corporatism, Social Order and Political Conflict (Cheltenham, Edward Elgar), 205-222.

2006. Europe’s Blues: Theoretical Soul-Searching After the Rejection of a European Constitution, with Liesbet Hooghe, PS: Politics and Political Science (April) 247-250.

2006. Party competition and European Integration: An East/West: Different Structure, Same Causality, with Liesbet Hooghe, Moira Nelson and Erica Edwards. Comparative Political Studies 39(2), 155-75. Replication data.


2005. Calculation, Community, and Cues: Public Opinion on European Integration, with Liesbet Hooghe, European Union Politics 6(4): 421-45. Replication data.


2004. Does Identity or Economic Rationality Drive Public Opinion on European Integration? with Liesbet Hooghe, PS: Political Science and Politics 37, 3: 415-420.

2004Contrasting Visions of Multi-Level Governance? with Liesbet Hooghe, in Multi-Level Governance, edited by Ian Bache and Matthew Flinders (Oxford: Oxford University Press), 15-30.

2004. European Integration and Political Conflict: Citizens, Parties, Groups, with Marco Steenbergen (eds). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 280 pp. Table of Contents, Introduction, and Conclusion.

2004. Conclusion: European Integration and Political Conflict, in European Integration and Political Conflict: Citizens, Parties, Groups, edited by Gary Marks and Marco Steenbergen, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), 235-59.

2004. “Regional integration and Left Parties in Europe and North America,” with Ian Down, in Restructuring Territoriality: Europe and the United States Compared, edited by Christopher K. Ansell and Giuseppe Di Palma, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).


2003Unraveling the Central State. But How? Types of Multi-level Governance, with Liesbet Hooghe, American Political Science Review 97(2): 233-243.


2002What Do Subnational Offices Think They Are Doing in Brussels?, with Richard Haesly and Heather Mbaye, Regional and Federal Studies 12(3): 1-23.

2002. Does Left/Right Structure Party Positions on European Integration? with Liesbet Hooghe and Carole J. Wilson, Comparative Political Studies, 35(8): 965-989.

2002. National Political Parties and European Integration, with Carole Wilson and Leonard Ray, American Journal of Political Science 46(3): 585-594.

2002. “Dimensions of Contestation in the European Union,” special issue co-edited with Marco Steenbergen, Comparative Political Studies, 35(8): 879-989.

2002. Understanding Political Contestation in the European Union, with Marco Steenbergen, Comparative Political Studies 35 (8): 879-892.


2001. Multi-level Governance and European Integration, Rowman & Littlefield: Boulder, Colorado, with Liesbet Hooghe. 256 pp. Read Chapter onetwofivesixeight and ten.


2000Optimality and Authority: A Critique of Neoclassical Theory, with Liesbet Hooghe, Journal of Common Market Studies 38(5): 795-816.

2000. The Past in the Present: A Theory of Party Response to European Integration, with Carole Wilson, British Journal of Political Science 30 (July), 433-459.

2000. What Do Subnational Offices Think They Are Doing in Brussels? with Richard Haesly and Heather Mbaye, Regional and Federal Studies, 12(3): 1-23.

2000. It Didn’t Happen Here: Why Socialism Failed in the United States?, with Seymour Martin Lipset, New York: Norton, 379 pp. Read Chapter eight + notes.


1999. Continuity and Change in Contemporary Capitalism, co-edited with Herbert Kitschelt, Peter Lange, and John Stephens (Cambridge University Press: Cambridge), 527 pp.

1999. The Making of a Polity: The Struggle over European Integration, with Liesbet Hooghe, in Herbert Kitschelt, Peter Lange, Gary Marks and John Stephens, eds., Continuity and Change in Contemporary Capitalism, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), 70-97. Postscript (2008).

1999. “Convergence and Divergence in Advanced Capitalist Societies,” in Herbert Kitschelt, Peter Lange, Gary Marks, and John Stephens eds., Continuity and Change in Contemporary Capitalism (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), 427-460. Also co-authored “Introduction,” 1-8.

1999. On the Relationship of Political Opportunities to the Form of Collective Action: The Case of the European Union, with Doug McAdam, in Donatella della Porta, Hanspieter Kriesi and Dieter Rucht, eds. Social Movements in a Globalizing World (New York: St. Martin’s Press), 97-111.

1999On the Relationship of Political Opportunities to the Form of Collective Action: The Case of the European Union, with Doug McAdam, in Donatella della Porta, Hanspieter Kriesi and Dieter Rucht, eds. Social Movements in a Globalizing World (New York: St. Martin’s Press), 97-111.

1999Territorial Identities in the European Union, in Jeffrey J. Anderson, ed., Regional Integration and Democracy: Expanding on the European Experience (Boulder, CO.: Rowman & Littlefield), 69-91.


1997An Initial Attempt to Explain Reallocation of Authority Among Regimes, with Reference to Diffusion of Authority in European Integration and the Disintegration of the Carolingian Empire, APSA meeting, Washington DC, August 1997.

1997A Third Lens: Comparing European Integration and State Building, in Jytte Klausen and Louise A. Tilly, eds., European Integration in Social and Historical Perspective: 1850 to the Present (New York: Rowman & Littlefield), 23-50. Reprinted in Neill Nugent, ed., Theories of European Integration (Aldershot: Dartmouth, 1997).

1997. “Contending Models of Governance in the European Union,” with Liesbet Hooghe, in Alan Cafruny and Carl Lankowski, eds., Europe’s Ambiguous Unity: Conflict and Consensus in the Post-Maastricht Era (Boulder, Colorado: Lynne Rienner), 21-44.


1996Governance in the European Union, with Fritz Scharpf, Philippe Schmitter, Wolfgang Streeck. London: Sage Press, 182 pp.

1996An Actor-Centered Approach to Multi-Level GovernanceRegional and Federal Studies 6(2): 20-40.

1996Competencies, Cracks, and Conflicts: Regional Mobilization in the European Union, with Francois Nielsen, Jane Salk, and Leonard Ray, Comparative Political Studies 29(2): 164-193.

1996European Integration and the State: Multi-level vs. State Centric Governance, with Liesbet Hooghe and Kermit Blank, Journal of Common Market Studies 34 (3): 341-378.

1996. “Territorial Restructuring in the European Union: Regional Pressures,” with Liesbet Hooghe, in Sabino Cassese and Vincent Wright, eds., La Restructuration de L’Etat dans les Pays d’Europe Occidentale (Paris: Editions La Découverte, Collection “Recherches.”). Published in English by Pinter Publisher: London, 207-226.

1996Europe With the Regions: Channels of Subnational Representation in the European Union, with Liesbet Hooghe, Publius 26 (1): 73-92.

1996Exploring and Explaining Variation in EU Cohesion Policy, in Liesbet Hooghe, ed., European Integration and EU Cohesion Policy: Building Multilevel Governance, (Oxford: Oxford University Press), 388-422.

1996Social Movements and the Changing Structure of Political Opportunity in the European Community, with Doug McAdam, West European Politics 18(2): 249-278.


1995. La Transformación de la Movilización Regional en la Unión Europea, (“The Transformation of Regional Mobilization in the European Union”), with Ivan Llamazares, Revista de Estudios Políticos 22(1): 149-170.

1995. “Channels of Subnational Representation in the European Union,” with Liesbet Hooghe, in Renaud Dehousse and Thomas Christiansen, eds., What Model for the Committee of the Regions? Past Experiences and Future Perspectives (Florence: European University Institute Working Paper, 1995), 6-25.


1993Structural Policy and Multilevel Governance in the EC, in Alan Cafruny and Glenda Rosenthal, eds., The State of the European Community, (New York: Lynne Rienner,), 391-410.


1992Structural Policy in the European Community, in Alberta Sbragia, ed., Europolitics: Institutions and Policy Making in the ‘New’ European Community , (Washington D.C.: The Brookings Institution), 191-224.

1992. The Crisis of Socialism in Europe, with Christiane Lemke (eds.). Durham: Duke University Press, 255 pp.

1992. “From Decline to Demise? The Fate of Socialism in Europe,” with Christiane Lemke, in Christiane Lemke and Gary Marks, eds., The Crisis of Socialism in Europe, (Durham: Duke University Press), pp 1-25.

1992. Reexamining Democracy: Essays in Honor of Seymour Martin Lipset, co-edited with Larry Diamond (Beverly Hills: Sage), 365 pp.

1992. “Comparative Perspectives On Democracy: Essays in Honor of Seymour Martin Lipset,” double issue of the American Behavioral Scientist 35(3/4), co-edited with Larry Diamond, 217pp.

1992. “Rational Bases of Chaos in Democratic Transition,” American Behavioral Scientist, 35(3/4):397-421.

1992. “Seymour Martin Lipset and the Study of Democracy,” with Larry Diamond, American Behavioral Scientist, 35(3/4): 352-362.


1990. Immigrant Support for the American Socialist Party, 1912 and 1920, with Matthew Burbank, Social Science History, 14 (Summer), 175-202.


1989. Unions in Politics: Britain, Germany, and the United States in the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 277 pp.

1989. Variations in Union Political Activity: Britain, Germany and the United States from the Nineteenth Century, Comparative Politics 20 (October), 84-104.


1986. “Neocorporatism and Incomes Policy in Western Europe and North America“, Comparative Politics,  18, 3: 253-277.


1985. The Revival of Laissez-Faire: the United States and Britain in Comparative Perspective, in James Ceaser and Richard Hodder Williams, eds., Politics in Britain and the United States, (Durham: Duke University Press), 28-54.

1985. State/Economy Linkages in Advanced Industrialized Societies, in Norman Vig and Steven Schier, eds., The Political Economy of Western Democracies, (New York: Holmes and Meier), 46-69.


1981. “Mobilizing for Jesus: Evangelicals and the 1980 Election in the United States,” with Jeanne J. Fleming, Tocqueville Review 3 (Winter), 195-208.

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