Last updated: November 23, 2020
This release of the Regional Authority Index expands geographical coverage from 81 to 95 countries (including China, India, Pakistan), extends the time period from 1950 through 2018, and covers metropolitan regions alongside standard regions. Scoring is annual and the unit of analysis is the individual region. These data are, for now, available in two aggregations: RAI-MLG provides annual scores for each region or regional tier that is intermediate between the lowest and highest tier of government in a country, and RAI-Region provides annual scores for the most authoritative regional tier. RAI-Country provides annual scores for each country. The coding follows the conceptual and operational frame in Hooghe et al. (2010) and Hooghe et al. (2016) below. Click here for country coverage and a summary of the measure. Release: November 23, 2020.
*** We are working on RAI-metro (annual scores for metropolitan governance) and RAI-indigenous (annual scores for indigenous governance). We will also post updated country profiles. ***
This project is summarized in two books. The first book conceptualizes regional authority and operationalizes this into the Regional Authority Index. The second book theorizes regional authority as shaped by functional and communal pressures. Functional pressures arise from scale economies and externalities in public goods provision, and communal pressures arise from how people conceive themselves as belonging to distinctive communities. Scale and community explain basic features of regional governance, including the growth of multiple tiers; how jurisdictions are designed; why governance has become differentiated; and the extent to which regions exert authority.
- Liesbet Hooghe, Gary Marks, Arjan Schakel, Sandra Chapman Osterkatz, Sara Niedzwiecki, and Sarah Shair-Rosenfield. 2016. Measuring Regional Authority. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 687pp. Table of Contents || Chapters 1-3
- Liesbet Hooghe and Gary Marks. 2016. Community, Scale, and Regional Governance. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 195pp. Table of Contents || Chapter 1 || Chapter 4 || Chapter 5 || Chapter 7
How to cite RAI v.3?
Shair-Rosenfield, Sarah, Arjan H. Schakel, Sara Niedzwiecki, Gary Marks, Liesbet Hooghe, Sandra Chapman-Osterkatz. 2020. Language difference and regional authority. Regional and Federal Studies, online https://doi.org/10.1080/13597566.2020.1831476 [published online Oct 14, 2020].
Hooghe, Liesbet, Gary Marks, Arjan H. Schakel, Sandra Chapman Osterkatz, Sara Niedzwiecki, Sarah Shair-Rosenfield (2016). Measuring Regional Authority: A Postfunctionalist Theory of Governance, Volume I. Oxford: Oxford University Press, xiv+ 687pp.
RAI-Rokkan data on regional distinctiveness
The RAI-Rokkan dataset estimates normative, political, and geographical distinctiveness of 1766 regions in 95 countries in 2018. The unit of analysis is the territorial unit with the most authoritative general purpose government between the lowest and highest (national) tier in a country. This operationalizes Stein Rokkan’s concepts of difference, dependence, and distance as indications of a territory’s peripherality (Rokkan and Urwin 1983). Each region is assessed on how distinctive it is from the national state’s core with respect to language and religion (difference), former statehood and early overarching governance (dependence), and travel time and geographical discontinuity (distance). Release v.1: November 23, 2020.
Data (in excel) and codebook: RAI-Rokkan
How to cite RAI-Rokkan?
Liesbet Hooghe and Gary Marks. 2016. Community, Scale, and Regional Governance. Oxford University Press.
RAI V. 2 data*
Data for the Regional Authority Index (RAI) v. 2 are aggregated in two datasets: one with annual scores for 231 regional governments/tiers in 65 countries for 1950-2010, and one with annual scores for 81 countries for 1950-2010.
- Regional scores (stata and excel)
- Regional codebook
- Country scores (stata and excel)
- Country codebook
- Coding scheme on how the ten dimensions were operationalized
- Instructions on how to calculate country scores: OECD-EU SEA LA
* March 2016
Citation: Hooghe, Liesbet, Gary Marks, Arjan H. Schakel, Sandi Chapman Osterkatz, Sara Niedzwiecki, Sarah Shair-Rosenfield (2016). Measuring Regional Authority: A Postfunctionalist Theory of Governance, Volume I. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Other work by team members
Sarah Shair-Rosenfield, Arjan H. Schakel, Sara Niedzwiecki, Gary Marks, Liesbet Hooghe, and Sandra Chapman-Osterkatz. 2020. Language difference and regional authority. Regional and Federal Studies (special anniversary issue), DOI: 10.1080/13597566.2020.1831476
Liesbet Hooghe and Gary Marks. 2018. Symposium on measuring and theorizing regional governance. Territory, Governance, Politics. Contributions by Kent Eaton, JP Faguet, Imke Harbers, and a response by Arjan H. Schakel, Liesbet Hooghe, Gary Marks, Sara Niedzwiecki, Sandra Chapman-Osterkatz, and Sarah Shair-Rosenfield.
Sara Niedzwiecki, Sandra Chapman-Osterkatz, Liesbet Hooghe, Gary Marks. 2017. “The RAI travels to Latin America Measuring regional authority under regime change.” Regional and Federal Studies.https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/13597566.2018.1489248
Arjan Schakel, Gary Marks, Liesbet Hooghe. 2015. Multilevel Governance and the State. In Oxford Handbook on the Transformation of the State, edited by Stephan Leibfried, Evelyne Huber, John Stephens. Oxford: OUP, 266-82.
Sarah Shair-Rosenfield, Gary Marks, Liesbet Hooghe. 2014. A Comparative Measure of Decentralization for Southeast Asia. Journal of East Asian Studies, 14 (1): 85-108. SEA replication.
Liesbet Hooghe and Gary Marks. 2013. Beyond Federalism: Estimating and Explaining the Territorial Structure of Government. Publius, 43 (2): 179-204. Online appendix..
Liesbet Hooghe, Gary Marks, Arjan H. Schakel. 2010. The Rise of Regional Authority: A Comparative Study of 42 democracies (1950-2006).(London: Routledge).
Liesbet Hooghe, Gary Marks, Arjan H. Schakel. 2008. Special issue on “Measuring Regional Authority”, Regional and Federal Studies, 18, 2-3: 111-302.
Marks; Hooghe; Schakel. Measuring regional authority
Hooghe; Marks; Schakel. Operationalizing regional authority
Schakel. Validation of regional authority index
Marks; Hooghe; Schakel. Patterns of regional authority
Appendix A: Profiles of Regional Reform in 42 Countries (1950-2006)
Appendix B: Country and Regional Scores
Appendix C: A Library on Regional Authority